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What you need to know before lending (or borrowing) money from family
In the midst of a financial crunch, most people consider borrowing money from a family member to be a better option than a bank or credit union, a good friend, their 401(k) plan, or even a low- or no-interest credit card. While most people look to their family as the non-judgmental, do-anything-to-help, ideal solution to their financial dilemmas, there are pros and cons to entering into this arrangement for both the lender and the borrower.
It seems like a simple transaction
From the borrower’s perspective, the application process is simple—just ask. Other than explaining why it’s needed, there are typically no other requirements to meet, not even a credit check. Even better, family members are often generous enough to loan money for free. Most don’t charge any interest, or if they do, it’s much lower than the best rate a bank or credit union could offer.
Family members are often eager to help, but if they’re lending money, they should understand their motivation behind their offer and the risks they assume in doing so.
The details define the loan
When a family member loans money to another family member, details need to be documented, and specific expectations must be set. Conversations around money are tough and sometimes extremely awkward. Think of this as the price you pay for borrowing money from a relative.
Discussions should address the reason for the loan and whether or not the lender is expecting to be repaid. A repayment schedule should be agreed upon, including dates, amounts, and method of repayment, and steps that will be taken if the borrower defaults on the loan.
The borrower should be able to provide the plan for repaying the loan and address the possibility of missed payments. Discussions should also define any rights that are granted to the lender until the loan is repaid in full, like approving large purchases or vacation plans, reviewing a monthly budget, or monitoring bank accounts.
The more detail discussed before the loan is issued, the better chance of preserving the family relationship. Many family loans are successful, but, in order to avoid tensions, communication must be continuous, clear, and in writing. While some family members might consider this too formal, it’s for the protection of both parties.
Lenders need to protect themselves
Any time you lend money, there’s a risk that the borrower will not be able to repay the loan. While you may have every confidence that the borrower will be true to their word, lenders should consider collateral to secure the loan. In the case of default, the sale of any named asset could help recover the outstanding balance.
Speak with your attorney to discuss any additional risks that you should address in order to protect yourself. You can also ask your attorney to draft the written agreement that includes the agreed upon details of the loan and its repayment.
Tax implications to consider
In addition to ironing out the details of the loan, there are serious tax issues to consider. The transfer of large amounts of money can alert the IRS. Even without any wrongdoing, it could trigger an audit into your finances.
There are also rules that address the minimum interest rates that can be charged on personal loans and a potential gift tax that can be assessed in some cases. There may be other tax implications that you hadn’t yet considered, so be sure to talk with your tax advisor before you set an interest rate, sign any documents, or transfer any funds.
What are ancillary products (and are they really worth it)?
If you’ve ever purchased a vehicle, you’re probably familiar with the same old spiel – the finance guy (or gal) at the dealership sits you down and begins offering you product after product to protect your interest, and if you’re like most people, you end up feeling overwhelmed and confused. So, the question is, what are ancillary products and are they really worth it? Ultimately that decision is up to you, but we’ve highlighted some features and benefits about different loan protection options to help you make an educated choice the next time you’re faced with the decision to add ancillary products. Check them out below.
GAP insurance (or Guaranteed Asset Protection) is protection offered by finance companies, either through a dealership or through your credit union, to cover any difference on your loan (that your insurance doesn’t pay) if your vehicle is totaled and/or stolen.
- The cost of GAP can range from $300 to as much as $900 depending on where you purchase this coverage (e.g., through a credit union versus a dealership).
- If you are upside down (meaning you owe more than the vehicle is worth), GAP can be a huge money-saver. For a relatively small investment of $300 (competitively priced GAP), you could save thousands down the road. On the other hand, if you end up paying $900 (on the higher end of GAP coverage), your margin of savings will be much less.
- The key is knowing your Loan-to-Value (LTV). LTV is a percentage based on the amount you owe divided by the value of your vehicle. Example: if you owe $20,000 on your vehicle, but it’s worth $15,000, your LTV is 133%. Generally speaking, if you are over 90% LTV, you could benefit from GAP coverage. On average cars depreciate roughly 19% in the first year, and as much as 50% in the first 3 years – unless you plan on paying off your car in 3 years, GAP could be a huge money saver.
- Another factor to consider is some GAP policies will also pay your insurance deductible, so instead of paying $500 or $1,000 or higher (depending on your deductible), you pay nothing out-of-pocket.
Mechanical Repair Coverage
Mechanical Repair Coverage or extended warranties are offered in addition to the manufacturer warranty. The cost of extended warranties varies greatly depending on the make and the model of the vehicle, and who you purchase the extended warranty through.
Here are a few key questions you should ask yourself before considering the purchase of an extended warranty:
- How many years/miles does my manufacturer warranty have left on it? Most manufacturers offer a 3-year/36,000-mile factory warranty.
- What is the difference between the basic manufacturer warranty and the powertrain warranty? The basic warranty typically covers everything bumper-to-bumper, whereas the powertrain warranty only covers the powertrain and the associated parts.
- How long do I intend to keep the vehicle?
- How much will repairs cost if I encounter them down the road?
Most extended warranties cover you well over 100,000 miles – if you plan on keeping your car for longer than that, an extended warranty could be a great money-saving option. Some institutions will allow you to extend the term of your loan in order to absorb the cost of coverage while keeping your monthly payment the same. Of course, doing initial calculations and analyzing your budget and needs is necessary before making any financial decision.
Loan Protection is just like it sounds: protection that covers your payments or the entire loan balance following a significant life event, such as loss of life, unemployment, disability, and family medical leave. Some institutions, such as Georgia’s Own, provide additional protection for accidental dismemberment, terminal illness, hospitalization, and loss of life of a non-protected dependent.* The cost and coverage vary from institution to institution, so it would be wise to do your homework. Most institutions have a cost per hundred dollars of the current loan balance.
Highlights of loan protection programs:
- The events covered by most loan protection programs are: loss of life, disability, unemployment, and family leave.
- Most institutions offer various loan protection packages that can cover one, two, three, or all four of the life events mentioned. Some institutions offer additional coverage.
- Loan protection programs are available for most types of loans.
- There is typically a cap of coverage over a certain dollar amount.
Benefits of loan protection programs:
- Loss of Life protection can ease the burden on your family, and your debt can be completely cancelled.
- Disability protection could cover your payments for you when your income might be drastically reduced due to a disability event (most competitive employers only offer as much as 60% of your salary for a short-term disability).
- Unemployment protection could be invaluable in a time where you’ve lost your job unexpectedly and are unable to make your loan payments.
- If you are unable to work for an extended period of time, family leave coverage can help you maintain the same level of income.
The bottom line: There are a number of loan protection options available to help protect you when faced with the unexpected. Although these services come with a cost, it may be worth investing in the peace of mind these protection programs offer.
*Beginning August 1, 2017, Life Protection under Members Protection Plus will include even more. We’ve added accidental dismemberment, terminal illness, hospitalization, family medical leave, and loss of life of a non-protected dependent to our coverage.