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Forbearance vs. deferment: what’s the difference?
When you’re in the midst of a financial crisis, it can seem nearly impossible to dig your way out—especially if you’re paying off loans. However, there are various alternatives to ease the strain on finances, like forbearance or deferred payments. Forbearance and deferment are terms often used interchangeably—but, there are differences between the two. We’ve broken down the basics of forbearance and deferment, so you can decide what works best for you and your financial situation.
What is forbearance?
A forbearance is an agreement between a borrower and lender to temporarily suspend or reduce payments. People typically request forbearance when they’ve experienced a temporary financial setback, like job loss or illness.
How does forbearance work?
During a forbearance agreement, lenders agree to accept reduced payments or no payments for up to 12 months. When the forbearance period ends, the borrower must resume payments and repay what they owed during the forbearance period, plus interest and possible fees. Repayments can be made in a lump sum or up to 12 installments added to regular monthly payments.
Most people request a forbearance on their mortgage or student loans. But, forbearance works differently depending on each situation.
Homeowners can request a mortgage forbearance to catch up on payments and avoid foreclosure. Most lenders require proof that homeowners are enduring a temporary financial hardship, as well as assurance that the borrower can pay back what they owe when the forbearance period is over. During the forbearance period, lenders stop foreclosure proceedings and allow the borrower to make reduced payments or no payments. If your financial trouble lasts longer than anticipated, or you don’t have the funds to make repayments, you can discuss options with your lender, like a loan modification.
Student loan borrowers can apply for forbearance when they are facing a temporary hardship and don’t qualify for deferment. With student loan forbearance, you can temporarily halt payments for up to 12 months at a time with no set maximum for federal loans. You do not need a specific, qualifying event to apply for student loan forbearance.
Are you still charged interest during a forbearance?
Interest accrues on both mortgage and student loan forbearance, unless otherwise stated. Because of COVID-19, federal student loans were placed on administrative forbearance, and interest rates were reduced to 0%, so they’re not accruing interest right now. For mortgage forbearance, interest accrues on skipped or lowered payments. So, you will have to pay back what you owed during the forbearance period, plus interest. For student loan forbearance, the amount you owe will always increase—at the end of your forbearance period, interest may capitalize, which means it’s added to your loan’s current principal balance. From there, interest will be calculated on the new amount.
Does a forbearance impact your credit score?
Mortgage forbearance can lower your credit score—but, it depends if your lender reports it to the credit bureau. If they do, then your credit score could dip. And, if you wanted to refinance or purchase a new home, you have to reestablish yourself as a credible borrower, so you must repay what you owe. Still, a temporary drop in your credit score from a forbearance is much better than a missed payment—and it helps avoid foreclosure, which can stay on your credit report for seven years. For student loans, forbearance does not affect your credit score.
What is deferment?
Deferred payments, sometimes called payment holidays, allow you to delay or suspend payments on a loan—generally a consumer loan. If you’re experiencing financial hardship, deferring a payment could be beneficial, as it temporarily halts the burden of making repayments. It could impact you in the long run—you may end up with higher monthly payments, and your loan’s term will increase.
How does deferment work?
Similar to a forbearance, during a deferment period, payments are suspended but for a shorter amount of time. And, unlike forbearance, you are not required to pay back what you owe all at once. What you owe is usually tacked onto the end of your loan’s term, which is why your loan term often increases. Most people request deferred payments on their auto loans or student loans. Again, deferred payments work differently depending on the circumstances.
Lenders will sometimes allow you to defer your car payment for a month or sometimes up to three months. Most lenders ask you to provide a brief explanation as to why you need to defer your payment, and they may also review your credit score or credit report. It can be a viable solution in the short run. But, deferring a car payment isn’t always the best long-term choice. If you realize your financial trouble may last longer than anticipated, discuss refinancing options with your lender.
Similarly, borrowers can request a deferment on their student loans to relieve the financial burden. Unlike forbearance, you must have a specific, qualifying event to be approved. Student loan deferment generally works best if you have a subsidized federal student loan or a Perkins loan. And, deferment length depends on the type of deferment—some last up to three years, while others last as long as you qualify.
Are you still charged interest during a deferment?
For student loans, interest does not accrue on subsidized federal student loans and Perkins loans. For other consumer loans, whether or not you’re charged interest depends on your loan type, so it’s best to check with your lender first. You may be responsible for interest that accrues while your payment is postponed. You could potentially receive a break if your interest rate only applies to your principal balance—which means you won’t be charged interest on the interest that accrues. Once you restart payments, the interest that accrued during your payment holiday could be added to your principal balance, and your interest rate would then be applied to the new, larger principal balance—meaning even more interest could accumulate once you resume your regular payments.
Does a deferment impact your credit score?
Deferred payments usually don’t impact your credit score. When your application is approved, your lender reports to the credit bureau that your payments are deferred. But, if you stop making payments or miss a payment due date before you’re approved, those missed payments could damage your credit. If you missed payments before you applied for a payment holiday, those won’t be removed from your credit history, either. You must continue making your payments until you have verification that your payments are deferred.
Deciding to apply for forbearance or deferment is an enormous decision, and there are various factors to consider. It’s critical to think about how long you anticipate a lapse in finances, your needs, and the potential outcomes.
If you’re facing financial trouble, you’re not alone—at Georgia’s Own, we’re here to help and provide financial advice and resources to get you through whatever financial struggles you’re facing. If you require financial assistance because of COVID-19, click here to see how Georgia’s Own is helping members during this time of need.
The Paycheck Protection Program: What is it and what does it do for small businesses?
Congress recently approved an additional $310 billion in funding for the Paycheck Protection Program as part of the CARES Act, the stimulus bill created in light of the economic downturn due to COVID-19. We’ve broken down the basics of the Paycheck Protection Program for small business owners, so you can understand how to navigate the program and receive funds as quickly as possible.
What is the Paycheck Protection Program?
The Paycheck Protection Program, otherwise known as the PPP, is the driving factor in the small business portion of the coronavirus stimulus package. The PPP is a forgivable loan that allows small businesses to continue paying their employees, mortgage interest, rent, and utilities, over eight weeks. It’s intended to help businesses keep their workforce employed during the COVID-19 pandemic. Businesses can receive up to $10 million, or 2.5 times their monthly payroll.
Who is eligible for PPP?
Small businesses—companies with fewer than 500 employees—can apply for PPP loans. Businesses must demonstrate that they have been negatively affected by the coronavirus. Qualified businesses include any business categorized under “accommodation or food service,” such as restaurants or hotels, with 500 or fewer employees, tribal businesses, independently owned franchises, self-employed workers, independent contractors, sole proprietors, or gig workers.
Where can you apply?
PPP loans are managed by certified Small Business Administration (SBA) lenders. You can apply for a PPP loan through approved SBA lenders or any federally insured depository institution, federally insured credit unions, and Farm Credit System institutions. Talk with your preferred lender to see if they’re participating. The SBA also has a lender search tool on their website. If you have already applied, check with your lender to verify your application status. The deadline to apply is June 30th, 2020, when the program ends, but you should apply as soon as possible. You should only apply through approved SBA lenders—many scammers are using this time of desperation as an opportunity to take advantage of people. Legitimate lenders will not ask for your Social Security number, bank account, or credit card numbers upfront.
As the SBA accepts loan applications, Georgia’s Own will process member requests in the same manner in the order they are received: please submit your contact information to [email protected] In your email, please include the business name, type of industry and if you are business or retail type, number of employees, and contact information, such as an email address and/or telephone number.
How does PPP loan forgiveness work?
If you use the loan for anything other than payroll costs, mortgage interest, rent, and utilities throughout the loan, your loan will not be forgiven. Also, it’s only forgivable if you keep all your workers. So, if you previously laid off employees, you’ll need to rehire them. You can submit a request for loan forgiveness through your lender. The number of full-time employees and pay rates, as well as payments on the eligible mortgage, lease, and utilities will need to be verified. However, the loan carries a 1% interest rate that must be paid back within two years—payments can be deferred for six months.
For more information on loan resources for small businesses, visit sba.gov. And, to see how Georgia’s Own is helping members, small businesses, and the community during this time of need, visit our website.
What you need to know before lending (or borrowing) money from family
In the midst of a financial crunch, most people consider borrowing money from a family member to be a better option than a bank or credit union, a good friend, their 401(k) plan, or even a low- or no-interest credit card. While most people look to their family as the non-judgmental, do-anything-to-help, ideal solution to their financial dilemmas, there are pros and cons to entering into this arrangement for both the lender and the borrower.
It seems like a simple transaction
From the borrower’s perspective, the application process is simple—just ask. Other than explaining why it’s needed, there are typically no other requirements to meet, not even a credit check. Even better, family members are often generous enough to loan money for free. Most don’t charge any interest, or if they do, it’s much lower than the best rate a bank or credit union could offer.
Family members are often eager to help, but if they’re lending money, they should understand their motivation behind their offer and the risks they assume in doing so.
The details define the loan
When a family member loans money to another family member, details need to be documented, and specific expectations must be set. Conversations around money are tough and sometimes extremely awkward. Think of this as the price you pay for borrowing money from a relative.
Discussions should address the reason for the loan and whether or not the lender is expecting to be repaid. A repayment schedule should be agreed upon, including dates, amounts, and method of repayment, and steps that will be taken if the borrower defaults on the loan.
The borrower should be able to provide the plan for repaying the loan and address the possibility of missed payments. Discussions should also define any rights that are granted to the lender until the loan is repaid in full, like approving large purchases or vacation plans, reviewing a monthly budget, or monitoring bank accounts.
The more detail discussed before the loan is issued, the better chance of preserving the family relationship. Many family loans are successful, but, in order to avoid tensions, communication must be continuous, clear, and in writing. While some family members might consider this too formal, it’s for the protection of both parties.
Lenders need to protect themselves
Any time you lend money, there’s a risk that the borrower will not be able to repay the loan. While you may have every confidence that the borrower will be true to their word, lenders should consider collateral to secure the loan. In the case of default, the sale of any named asset could help recover the outstanding balance.
Speak with your attorney to discuss any additional risks that you should address in order to protect yourself. You can also ask your attorney to draft the written agreement that includes the agreed upon details of the loan and its repayment.
Tax implications to consider
In addition to ironing out the details of the loan, there are serious tax issues to consider. The transfer of large amounts of money can alert the IRS. Even without any wrongdoing, it could trigger an audit into your finances.
There are also rules that address the minimum interest rates that can be charged on personal loans and a potential gift tax that can be assessed in some cases. There may be other tax implications that you hadn’t yet considered, so be sure to talk with your tax advisor before you set an interest rate, sign any documents, or transfer any funds.
What are ancillary products (and are they really worth it)?
If you’ve ever purchased a vehicle, you’re probably familiar with the same old spiel – the finance guy (or gal) at the dealership sits you down and begins offering you product after product to protect your interest, and if you’re like most people, you end up feeling overwhelmed and confused. So, the question is, what are ancillary products and are they really worth it? Ultimately that decision is up to you, but we’ve highlighted some features and benefits about different loan protection options to help you make an educated choice the next time you’re faced with the decision to add ancillary products. Check them out below.
GAP insurance (or Guaranteed Asset Protection) is protection offered by finance companies, either through a dealership or through your credit union, to cover any difference on your loan (that your insurance doesn’t pay) if your vehicle is totaled and/or stolen.
- The cost of GAP can range from $300 to as much as $900 depending on where you purchase this coverage (e.g., through a credit union versus a dealership).
- If you are upside down (meaning you owe more than the vehicle is worth), GAP can be a huge money-saver. For a relatively small investment of $300 (competitively priced GAP), you could save thousands down the road. On the other hand, if you end up paying $900 (on the higher end of GAP coverage), your margin of savings will be much less.
- The key is knowing your Loan-to-Value (LTV). LTV is a percentage based on the amount you owe divided by the value of your vehicle. Example: if you owe $20,000 on your vehicle, but it’s worth $15,000, your LTV is 133%. Generally speaking, if you are over 90% LTV, you could benefit from GAP coverage. On average cars depreciate roughly 19% in the first year, and as much as 50% in the first 3 years – unless you plan on paying off your car in 3 years, GAP could be a huge money saver.
- Another factor to consider is some GAP policies will also pay your insurance deductible, so instead of paying $500 or $1,000 or higher (depending on your deductible), you pay nothing out-of-pocket.
Mechanical Repair Coverage
Mechanical Repair Coverage or extended warranties are offered in addition to the manufacturer warranty. The cost of extended warranties varies greatly depending on the make and the model of the vehicle, and who you purchase the extended warranty through.
Here are a few key questions you should ask yourself before considering the purchase of an extended warranty:
- How many years/miles does my manufacturer warranty have left on it? Most manufacturers offer a 3-year/36,000-mile factory warranty.
- What is the difference between the basic manufacturer warranty and the powertrain warranty? The basic warranty typically covers everything bumper-to-bumper, whereas the powertrain warranty only covers the powertrain and the associated parts.
- How long do I intend to keep the vehicle?
- How much will repairs cost if I encounter them down the road?
Most extended warranties cover you well over 100,000 miles – if you plan on keeping your car for longer than that, an extended warranty could be a great money-saving option. Some institutions will allow you to extend the term of your loan in order to absorb the cost of coverage while keeping your monthly payment the same. Of course, doing initial calculations and analyzing your budget and needs is necessary before making any financial decision.
Loan Protection is just like it sounds: protection that covers your payments or the entire loan balance following a significant life event, such as loss of life, unemployment, disability, and family medical leave. Some institutions, such as Georgia’s Own, provide additional protection for accidental dismemberment, terminal illness, hospitalization, and loss of life of a non-protected dependent.* The cost and coverage vary from institution to institution, so it would be wise to do your homework. Most institutions have a cost per hundred dollars of the current loan balance.
Highlights of loan protection programs:
- The events covered by most loan protection programs are: loss of life, disability, unemployment, and family leave.
- Most institutions offer various loan protection packages that can cover one, two, three, or all four of the life events mentioned. Some institutions offer additional coverage.
- Loan protection programs are available for most types of loans.
- There is typically a cap of coverage over a certain dollar amount.
Benefits of loan protection programs:
- Loss of Life protection can ease the burden on your family, and your debt can be completely cancelled.
- Disability protection could cover your payments for you when your income might be drastically reduced due to a disability event (most competitive employers only offer as much as 60% of your salary for a short-term disability).
- Unemployment protection could be invaluable in a time where you’ve lost your job unexpectedly and are unable to make your loan payments.
- If you are unable to work for an extended period of time, family leave coverage can help you maintain the same level of income.
The bottom line: There are a number of loan protection options available to help protect you when faced with the unexpected. Although these services come with a cost, it may be worth investing in the peace of mind these protection programs offer.
*Beginning August 1, 2017, Life Protection under Members Protection Plus will include even more. We’ve added accidental dismemberment, terminal illness, hospitalization, family medical leave, and loss of life of a non-protected dependent to our coverage.